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Letters of James Nayler (in vol. 1)


     Dear friends and brethren in the Lord Jesus Christ, my dear love unto you all, desiring you may be kept steadfast in the Lord Jesus Christ and in the power of his love, boldly to witness forth the truth as it is revealed in you by the mighty working of the Father: to him alone be everlasting praise and honor forevermore!

     Dear Friends, the Lord doth much manifest his love and power in these parts. Upon the second day of the last weekb my brother George and I were at Lancaster. There were abundance of Friends from all parts, and a great sort whichc sided with the priests, giving out they now hoped to see a stop put to that great work, which had gone on so fast and with such power that their kingdom is much shaken. We were called before Judge Fell, Colonel West, Justice Sawrey, &c., to answer what was charged against George. There were three witnesses to eight particulars, but they were much confused in themselves; which gave much light to the truth; whereby the justices did plainly see that it was envy, and they divers times told them so. One of the witnesses was a young priest, who confessed he had not meddled had not another priest sent for him and set him on work. The other witnesses were two priests' sons. It was proved there by many, that heard one of them say, if he had power, he would make George deny his profession, and that he would take away his life. This was a single witness to one of the greatest untruths that was charged against George. And the justices told him that they saw, because he could not take away his life, he went about <308> to take away his liberty. There was one priest chosen out of the whole number as an orator to plead against us; who spared no pains to show forth his envy against the truth. And when he could not prevail, he went down in a rage; and there came up a pack of them into the room, among whom was one Jacus. George was then speaking in the room (one of the justices having wished him, if he had anything to say, he would speak), at which the said priest Jacus was in such a rage that he brake forth into many high expressions against the truth spoken by my dear brother George; amongst which this was one, that the letter and the Spirit were inseparable. Hereupon the justices stood up and bid him prove that before he went any further. Then he, seeing himself caught, would have denied it; and when he could not get off so, the rest of the priests would have helped him to a meaning for his words. But the justices would admit no other meaning than the plain sense of the words, but told him, he had laid down a position, and it was fit he should prove it—pressing the matter close upon him. Whereupon the priests, being put to silence, went down in a greater rage than before; and some of them, after they were gone down, being asked what they had done, lied, and said, they could not get into the room; thereby to hide their shame and keep the people in blindness. The justices, Judge Fell and Colonel West, were much convinced of the truth and did set up justice and equity, and have much silenced the rage of the people. Many bitter spirits were at Lancaster to see the event, but went home and cried the priests had lost the day. Everlasting praises be to him who fought the battle for us, who is our king forever! There were others called, who the witnesses confessed were in the room when the things charged on George were said to have been spoken; but they all, as one man, denied that any such words were spoken. Which gave much light to the justices, and they durst trust what theyd witnessed; for they said they knew many of them to be honest men. There was a warrant granted out against us at Appleby; but Justice Benson told them it was not according to law, and so it ceased. As I hear, he is a <309> faithful man to the truth. The priests began to preach against the justices and said they were not to meddle in these things, but to end controversy betwixt neighbor and neighbor. They are not pleased with the law, because it is not in the statute to imprison us, as the priest that pleaded against us said. The justicese bid him go put it into the statute, if he could; he said, it should want no will of his. They are much afraid that they shall lose all. They are much discontented in these parts; and some of them cry, "All is gone."

     Dear Friends, dwell in patience and wait upon the Lord, who will do his own work. Look not at man in the work, nor at man who opposeth the work, but rest in the will of the Lord, that so ye may be furnished with patience both to do and to suffer what ye shall be called unto, that your end in all things may be his praise. And take up his cross freely, which keeps low the fleshly man, that Christ may be set up and honored in all things, and so the light advanced in you, and the judgment set up which must give sentence against all that opposeth the truth,f that the captivity may be led captive and the prisoner set free to seek the Lord, that righteousness may rule in you and peace and joy may dwell ing you, wherein consisteth the kingdom of the Father to whom be all praise forever! Dear Friends, meet often together, and take heed of what exalteth itself above its brother; but keep low, and serve one another in love for the Lord's sake. Let all Friends know how it is with us, that God may have the praise of all.

J. N.

Written from Kellet, the 30th day of the 8th month,h 1652.



     O friends, I see your minds drawn out from your conditions within, to look out at words; and there is presumption got up amongst you, and boasting; but in the meantime the pure seed lies under: a little leaven, leavens the whole lump; the leaven is within you, by which you are leavened; cast out that leaven that you may be a new lump; I charge you by the Lord, cast out that wicked person (false prophet) from amongst you, & mind that which is pure, which keeps you in the fear of the Lord, & keeps your minds from being carried out in deceit & so the truth comes to be scandalled, all heed that which keeps your hearts single & pure to God, and mortifies all corruption, and keeps from light-mindedness, if you may discover deceit as it riseth, & false prophets, every prophet that his words comes to pass is a true prophet, but no prophecy comes by the will of man, for the mind of man hath nothing to do with it, for the carnal will looks for that to be outward which is inward; abide everyone in your conditions in that which is pure, for the Lord is coming to prove you, the Lord settle you upon himself, that you may be stayed upon himself alone, from whom comes all goodness. Mind that which is pure in you, which keeps you together, that there be not a rent amongst you, and so you become a scorn to fools that understand nothing. & a rejoicing to the world, who wait to see your nakedness opened.

     Oh dear sister, my love is to thee and all the rest that you may be kept single to God. Richard Myers, thou gets above thy condition. Mind the babe in thee, and it will tell thee so. And, friend, thou that calls thyself a prophet art run up into the air. Lowly consider it. James Taylor, mind the light in thee, to guide thy mind into the fear of God, that thou mayest be kept low in obedience to his will & a discerning of truth.

     There is true prophecy, but thou that calls thyself a prophet, <311> & speaks with thy own will, thy words comes not to pass; therein thou shows thyself to be a false prophet; & the vials of God must be poured upon that false prophet within; there is a power I own, but there is earth & lightness & herein wisdom is not justified. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ unite & knit you together, that growing up as babes you may be kept from error, and desiring the sincere milk of the word, ye may grow thereby, in all meekness and tenderness, waiting for the kingdom of God in you, and be diligent serving the Lord, abide everyone in your callings, where God hath called you, & be not slothful in business, in that which the Lord requires of you, but be diligent serving the Lord. O friends, your runnings out causeth others to stumble. I charge you by the Lord that you read this amongst the people. Grace, mercy & love be multiplied unto you, the everlasting God of power keep you to his everlasting glory, in his everlasting love.


     Dear sister, I saw many dangers coming through looking out, but if you wait upon the Lord to be guided by his fear, all will be well, hushed & calm. Farewell in the Lord, & the God of peace be with you. Written from the Lord.

     One prophet prophesies for Baal, another prophet prophesies lies, but the man of God sees them both.

     Dear sister, my love in the Lord Jesus Christ, to thee & all the rest with thee, my heart's desire to the Lord, for you is, that you may be kept pure from all pollutions, to the Lord. Dear sister wait for a death to thy carnal wisdom, that thou mayest have that single eye open by which thy whole body shall be full of light. Farewell. J.N.



     Thou art sealed in my heart, my sister, thy care for the babes is pleasant, and in it thou prospers in these parts. I see it where thou hast been pruning, the Lord God Almighty bless thee with the fresh rivers of the valleys, water the living plants, my life; I am going towards Bishoprick. The prince of darkness is up here at Appleby but hath not much power; the night before the sessions I was amongst the beasts and see them raging in their beastly nature, foaming out their venom, but could not, therefore tormented. I had a meeting at Strickland Head the latter day to add to it; and so passed. Oh, our defense forever; but the beasts are exceeding mad at the work.

     As for Ellen Parr, I hear that she is come towards thee. Inquire and send for her, if she be not come to thee; judge the death, but save the little thing which I have seen moving in her; let her stay a while with thee, and show her the way of love, which is much lost in the heights.

     And as thou finds movings, inquire of truth, and write out to the flock of God in the meekness; thou hast power, bring down, under thy feet, which is above thee, there all feed in safety my blessed, beloved ones, farewell.

     My dear love to Margaret:k & the rest of thy family, you little ones, peace be amongst you.

J. N.

from Gervase Benson's house the 26th day



     James Nayler, a prisoner of Jesus Christ, unto all that love the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ everywhere, grace and peace be multiplied from God the Father and from our Lord Jesus Christ.

     My dear hearts, you whom the Lord hath manifested so much love unto, as to call you out of sin and death, and the world, all the delights and pleasures of the world which fadesl away, up to himself, where is joy unspeakable, pleasures and riches that endure forevermore. Dear friends, watch and be sober, that you may hear the voice of your Beloved when he calleth, and let not the precious proffers of the love of God be tendered in vain. While you have an ear open to the world you cannot hear the voice of God, so that you have been made to groan under it. How long have you been deceived by it? All your time promising peace, fullness, and satisfaction, but have been brought to cry out of oppression and deceit. And your cries are come before the Lord of sabbaths, who is your rest; and he is now appeared to deliver you and set you free from bondage, that you may serve him alone.

     And now take heed of consulting with your old master: hath the Lord been so merciful unto you as that he hath set your faces out of Sodom and Egypt towards the promised land? Oh take heed of looking back, lest you be taken captive and led back again, and so you come short of redemption, and your faith fail you, and so you come short of the promise; for unbelief cannot enter into the rest. But you, dear friends, put on resolution, put on strength, be valiant for your freedom, cast off every weight, follow your captain, the Lord Jesus Christ, who, for the joy set before him, endured the cross, despised the shame, and so entered into rest and glory. Take heed of halting between God and the world: what agreement can there be, or what peace while you are married to the world? Your thoughts turn in thither, and you are adulterated from God, who gives you all good things, as so many tokens of his love. Hereby is the broken language <314> brought forth, and you cannot speak the pure language of the land of rest. And while you give way to that in you which leads you to look back to what is behind you, you keep yourselves in the wilderness and darkness, and lose your way, and know not where you are, grieving the holy Spirit of the Lord which hath appeared unto you to guide you. But O friends! mind your Guide, and follow him; arise, shine, your light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon you; the night is far spent, the day is at hand, even the day of Zion's deliverance. Arise, come away, all you that love her; come off from the world and worldly things, come into the life, lie no longer in death and dead things. Awake, thou that sleepest, and stand up from the dead, that Christ may give thee light: come forth, come forth of all created things, witness your redemption from the world that you are redeemed from the earth up to God, out of all kindreds, tongues, people and nations, to reign as kings and priests forever, above the world, sin and death, triumphing and treading upon all that would take you captive. This is the day of your deliverance, own it with the loss of all fading pleasures, make it appear to all the world. This is the day you waited for, even the day of your joy, but of the world's sorrow: a day of blackness and gloominess, a day of fear and trouble to them that oppress you, a day wherein the kingdom of Jesus Christ shall be exalted and all the kingdoms and powers of the earth shaken, a day wherein the Lord will avenge the power of him that is too strong for you. Rejoice, rejoice, ye meek of the earth; shout for joy ye poor despised ones whom your brethren have trodden upon, and have cast you out, and you have been made their mocking stock for the truth's sake; sing and rejoice, the voice of a king is amongst you, and he will marry you to himself in righteousness, purity and holiness, and will rejoice over you as a bridegroom over the bride, and you shall be for a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God.

     O my dear hearts, my desire to God for you all is that you might come to see what unspeakable riches is laid up for you in Jesus Christ, which is hid from all flesh, neither can they see it who live after the flesh; and while they continue their love to the world and worldly things they keep out the manifestation of the <315> Father's love, for their hearts cannot receive both. Now show yourselves wise men, choose that which is eternal: here is light and life tendered to you in Jesus Christ, freely out of the Father's love. Freely receive life and love, and show forth life and love to God again, by giving up to him all you have and all you are for Christ's sake, that so you may come to receive all again with Christ, who is the fullness of the Father's love, and in him are all good things needful for this life and that which is to come, even the earnest of your inheritance, which none can take from you, which being received you shall never hunger more, having a wellspring within, even the witness of eternal life and love; and as Christ appears, who is our life and love; so shall life and love appear, spring, blossom, and bring forth fruit towards God and man, that so being raised withm him from death and dead works you may henceforth live unto God: and being brought into oneness with him, and purity and holiness, you may be one amongst yourselves, of one heart and one mind, speaking one and the self-same thing, and having the same care one for another as for yourselves. And take heed that there be not in any of you a principle of self-love, which will lead to separation and division, casting a stumbling block in the way of the simple; and so they that are weak may be defiled and turned back into the world. And I beseech you, brethren, that you mark them that once set their faces towards Zion, but not being willing to deny the world and take up the cross, have consulted with flesh and blood and turned back into Egypt again; of such take heed, knowing that the same spirit that hath wrought in them deceitfully will not cease to work by them to deceive others, to maintain its own kingdom. But you, standing fast in the pure light of Christ, shall see whither those return and the cause of their returnings, and that the end of such is worse than the beginning: but there will be such that they who are approved may be made manifest. But you, my brethren, be ye so far from following such that their falling away may cause you to watch and search by what power you stand, and so a pure fear may be preserved <316> in you by which you may be kept in the way that leads to the crown which is immortal. For it is he that overcomes that must wear the crown; wherefore faint not, nor think anything hard the Lord calls you unto; nothing must suffer but that which is to die, that your souls may live. Oh your light affliction worketh for you a far more exceeding weight of glory, while you keep your eye to that which is invisible. Wherefore give up yourselves to his will in all things. Stand in the will of God in your present condition; you are my joy in the Lord, let my bowels be refreshed to hear of your steadfastness and growth in the truth. Take heed of propounding ends to yourselves in anything, for that leads out of the way of God, and gives way to your own wisdom; and so you seek to preserve that alive which is appointed for death, and so you maintain war against God and know it not. And in this condition you can have no peace, while the enemies are in arms against your peace. Oh dear friends, you are in my heart; my prayer to God for you is that you may be kept blameless to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, blessed forever.

     My fellow prisoner1 and dear companion in the Lord salutes you all. Cease not to pray for us, that we may be kept to his praise, who hath counted us worthy to suffer for his name. We are well and in great peace, kept in our Father's love above all. We are often brought to stand and wonder how we are kept in the midst of the fire and not consumed; and the more that the enemy rages, the more are we kept in peace within. Here are strange devices used to ensnare us, to get aught against us (true or false) but all is ordered by a power the world knows not. God is our strength; rejoice with us all,n dear friends, and praise his name forevermore, for he is worthy, for his mercy endures forever.

James Nayler

A prisoner at Appleby in Westmorland,
     for the truth's sake, 1653



     All Friends everywhere who with the light that never changeth are convinced and turned from darkness: in the light dwell, that ye may come to learn Christ in the life and with it know the movings of the Spirit of life in you that moves against all the works of death, and so works to freedom. A measure of the living Spirit that power being known in every one, and your eye kept to it, with it you are kept diligent, quick and lively, to walk in the life; for it is the life that redeems, which only overcomes and enters into the rest: that ye may all come to know what it is to "follow the Lamb," with joy and peace in your minds, your hearts upright to your guide. Take heed that none of you walk by imitation of others: for though the way they walk in be good to them who are in the light, yet thou art in darkness and knowest not whither thou goest, nor canst ever receive any strength from God to carry thee on in the way, nor reward for it; and thy fellowship is not with God in that way, but with men, and in this way thou canst not be cleansed, but the end will be lost labor. And of this sort are they that turn back and speak evil of the way of God, when the way of God they never came into, nor his life, peace and power; that's a way they never knew. By these the offense comes, and the stumbling-block, whereby many are offended; but woe to such by whom the offence comes.

     And take heed of judging the measures of others, but everyone mind your own; and there ye famish the busy minds and high conceits, and so peace springs up among you and division is judged. And this know: that there are "diversities of gifts," but one Spirit and unity therein to all who with it are guided. And though the way seems to thee diverse, yet judge not the way, lest thou judge the Lord, and knowest not that several ways seeing to <318> reason) hath God to bring his people out by, yet are all but one in the end: this is, that he may be looked to from all the ends of the earth to be a guide and law-giver; and that none should judge before him. Deep is the mystery of godliness! Therefore silence all flesh and see your own ways be clean; and as ye grow therein the way of peace will be more prized by you, and the perfect bond ye will come to know; and all who are here established shall stand in strength when others fall on the right hand and on the left.

     Dear friends, you have long been convinced and owned the Lord in words and form; and now look for it you must be tried and proved, not only your faith and patience in persecution by the enemy without (for that many of you have escaped), but proved you must be with that which is nearer, even a falling-away amongst yourselves. And it is good that the steadfastness of all may be known herein. For many are crept in unawares who are "self-ended, slow-bellies, who love this world more than the cross of Christ, who are got high in the form and have great swelling words," which they can utter for their advantage in earthly things, deceiving the simple therewith who are not yet got above the pollution of the world. And this was ordained of old for the manifestation of him who is approved, and this man cannot be revealed but in the falling away. And with that eye that leads out of the fall is he seen to be fallen, who hath got the saints' words to plead for that which is in the fall, it to uphold. And here the oppressor would set his seat faster than before, the devil being now transformed into the likeness of an angel of light. And thus is the Scripture fulfilled: "My little children, this have I written to you that when ye see this come to pass ye might not be amazed, as though some strange thing had befallen the church of God; but even the same that was of old, to prove you and to perfect you against the devil. Herein is he made manifest, that ye may know his wiles." And great steadfastness shall it produce to all who mind their standing, have salt in themselves to savor withal. But that which will not come to the everlasting foundation is made to be tossed to and fro with airy spirits, who are now gone out into the world to deceive such whose hearts look back after worldly things. Therefore stand with your minds girded up to God above the world, lest ye run in vain and lose your crown, which none receives but he that continues to the end.



Some grounds why I deny you to be a church in Christ,
though in the times of ignorance I walked with you
in these things, worshipping I knew not what

     Having received the light of Christ by which the man of sin is revealed with all his deceitful workings, in teachers and people professing to be like the saints and holy men of God in words and form, but deny the life and power thereof; and being by the light commanded from such to turn away, in obedience thereto I am moved to declare the cause why I have withdrawn from you for some years; and now am moved to declare against you, and your ground, power and spirit to deny, by which you are acted in ways contrary to Christ, the apostles and holy men of God, as in Scripture is witnessed, and that in these several particulars.

     1. Your being gathered into an outward covenant, in a form of words, whereas the believers were gathered into the unity of faith by one Spirit, into the invisible covenant Christ Jesus, and there they knew one another in Spirit and them received, and not only in a form of words, nor did they shut out any that believed for such things; and here you are gathered in your inventions, and not by me, saith the Lord.

     2. Your worshipping in the idol's temple, builded for idolatry, and stands consecrated to that end to this day; out of such the apostles called all that believed to worship in temples made without hands, and they met in other places after they were called out, and said God did not dwell in temples made with hands.

     3. Your choosing a man to divine to you, always from a text of another man's words, or which he hath not received from the mouth of the Lord, taking hire for it, being called "master," and you calling him "master," which both are forbidden by Christ. And here you are out of the doctrine and faith of Christ, which respects no man's person, and amongst the heathens and customs of the world.

<320>     4. Your sprinkling infants upon the faith of others; but the saints' baptism was upon their own faith; for with the heart they believed, and with the tongue confessed to salvation, and the baptism by which they were saved was not the washing away the filth of the flesh but the answer of a good conscience through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

     5. Your leading people to sing David's conditions in rhymes and meter, in the invention, and not in Spirit: and so you join with the world to make songs of his words, but his condition you know not but are enemies to it where it is witnessed; and singing in words what you are not in life you are found liars, and lead others to lie also; but the saints sung by their gifts, and not other men's words, as you do.

     6. Your holding fast the form of sound words, the language of the Spirit, always used by the holy men of God, as the Scriptures do witness. And here you err from the practice of Christ and all the holy men of God, and are with the world in the confused language of Babel, yeing and youing one, and thouing another, after your own wills and passionate humors, observing times, places and persons herein; and here is unsound words and not after the Spirit.

     7. Your persecuting, stocking and shamefully entreating the innocent for coming into your idol's temples; yea, though they never speak a word therein: which none of the church of Christ ever did, but suffered the same from the world. And here are you in the wicked world and out of the saints' practice.

     8. And many other things I cannot own you in, as your hunting, coursing, keeping dogs for your pleasure, bowls, shuffleboard or such sports used by the heathen; but never by any of the saints, for they were redeemed from these vanities and prayed that their eyes might not behold vanities, and waited to redeem the time they had spent in lusts of the flesh. Also your vain laughters, wanton jestings; but they who know Christ know him a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; but the wicked are as chaff, who shall not stand in judgment. Besides I may instance your backbiting and false accusing your brethren, slandering before others, for that you never spoke to the face. And this is not charity nor order. And the whole thing you call worship, <321> which you perform every first day in your idol's temple, not one thing performed by you as was by Christ and those he sent.

     9. Your limiting the holy one no more to speak to his people but by the letter, which limiting we deny, having heard the voice of the same living God that ever was, who spoke to Abraham and his seed, and not only I, but hundreds in the nation, in whom that seed is raised up, shall witness against you.

     And while you are in these things I cannot own you to be a church in Christ; nay, you are proved to be no Christians, for they who were called of men masters, or upheld such as were so called for their teachers, were no Christians; who stood praying in the synagogues, had the chief place in the assemblies, whom our Lord Jesus Christ cried woe against, were no Christians, and who hauled out of the synagogues, stocked, beat and imprisoned, were no Christians; who lived in sports and gaming, backbiting and slandering, were no Christians; who had the faith of Christ in respect of persons, were not Christians; for Christ taught the way of God truly, neither did he respect any man's person. And here you are found out of Christ and his way, and according to your works you are judged, and not after your words; and by the light are you proved who say you are Christians and are not, but are such an assembly as the envious Jews were who acted these things against Christians. And though you may say that God is your Father, as they did, yet your works prove you to be of another generation; for whom you obey, his children you are (he that hath an ear to hear, let him hear). It is the life I own, and not the words only, for only that differs from hypocrites. And here your spirit is proved and tried, who have a name but are dead: for that is not the Spirit of Christ that is found out of the doctrine of Christ. And your power I deny, with the light you are seen and comprehended, and with the light condemned who are found out of the doctrine of Christ. Therefore I do deny you in the light, which is one in all your consciences, which will me witness eternally at the dreadful day, when the book of conscience is opened (though now seared), and then you shall see this to be truth, though now you harden yourselves against it: but it is that the Scriptures may be fulfilled upon you, that you may stumble, fall and be broken, as they did <322> who acted such things before you; and their plagues you shall witness, whether you will hear or forbear, unless you repent.

A lover of your souls,

James Nayler

Some Queries Annexed

     1. Whether the power of delivering up to Satan stands in the power of our Lord Jesus Christ or in the greater number of voices?

     2. Whether it be he that walks in the Spirit and power of Christ, withdrawing from him, that hath the form but denies the power, or they that have the form, but deny the power, casting out of their synagogues or meeting places; whether of these deliverings up are after the counsel of God and example of the saints in Scriptures?

     3. Whether it be he that is found in Satan's work, and pleads for it, that be to be delivered up to Satan, or he that is found in the work of God and denies the work of Satan?

     4. Whether any who have not the same infallible Spirit and power of the Lord Jesus Christ to judge withal, can give any up to Satan, or doth the Scripture warrant any such thing?

     5. Whether that judgment by which any is justly delivered up to Satan be eternal; yea, or nay?

     6. Whether assemblies (though never so great, or whatever they pretend) who have not this Spirit and power, have not cast out such as Christ hath received; and here the blind cast out the children of light, whose eyes Christ hath opened?

     7. And are not these Scriptures, Isaiah 66:5, John 16:2-3, now fulfilled upon this generation, that acts such things now, which Christ and the prophets foretold?


1. F. H. [Francis Howgill—QHP]

Editor's Notes

a. Included in George Fox's Journal. Wording used here is that of the 1694 edition, pp. 90-92. This is the earliest known letter by Nayler.

b. According to Geoffrey Nuttall, this originally read, "Monday last so called." "The Letters of James Nayler," in The Lamb's War: Quaker Essays to Honor Hugh Barbour, Michael L. Birkel and John W. Newman (eds.) (Earlham College Press, 1992) (hereinafter LJN), p. 44.

c. Whitehead changes "which" to "of people who."

d. Whitehead inserts "had."

e. Whitehead changes "justices" to "justice."

f. Nuttall says this was originally "the truth in ye" (LJN, p. 64).

g. Nuttall says this was originally "dwell with you" (LJN, p. 64).

h. Nuttall says this was originally "27 October" (LJN, p. 64).

i. From the Swarthmore Manuscripts (3.3), as transcribed by Licia & Larry Kuenning with help from excerpts published by Nuttall (LJN, p. 45-46). Nuttall estimates its date as November 1652 and writes, "Date from disapproval of 'prophesying' by R. Myers & J. Milner.... [James Taylor is for James Milner, who was a tailor by trade.]" Early Quaker Letters from the Swarthmore MSS. to 1660, ed. G.F. Nuttall, 1952; typescript (hereinafter EQL), p. 84. On Milner, see pp. 6 & 13 above, also William Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism, p. 147.

j. From the Swarthmore Manuscripts (3.2), as transcribed by Emily Jermyn in a copybook now in the Quaker Collection at Haverford College Library. Fox's endorsement attributes the letter to Nayler and dates it 1652; Nuttall estimates its date as July 26, 1653 and lists it as a letter to George Fox (EQL, #27, LJN, #9).

k. Presumably the Fells' oldest daughter, sometimes referred to as Margaret Fell, Jr., then about 20 years old.

l. Whitehead changes "fades" to "fade."

m. Whitehead changes "with" to "by."

n. Whitehead moves the comma to follow "us."

o. Nuttall writes, "This Letter, with several small but significant alterations, is appropriated to Fox in his Epistles (1698) as Ep. 47, where it is addressed to Friends in Cumberland, Bishoprick and Northumberland, and is included in twentieth-century anthologies of Fox's letters; but there are numerous seventeenth-century manuscript copies of it as Nayler's: see art. in Journal of Friends' Hist. Soc. 55.6 (1988), pp. 178-9" (LJN, p. 51). He estimates its date as "? 1653." The text printed here has been copied from Fox's Epistles (1698) and revised to agree with the Nayler manuscripts as far as possible, using the representations by Nuttall in the JFHS article mentioned and in the excerpts provided in LJN.

p. First published in Whitehead. Geoffrey Nuttall estimates the date as "? 1654" (LJN, p. 53).